A few examples of the Biblical use of precious stones -
The breastplate of Aaron the high priest, as instructed by God to Moses:
"In the first row there shall be a ruby, a topaz and a beryl; in the second row a turquoise, a sapphire and an emerald; in the third row a jacinth, an agate and an amethyst; in the fourth row a chrysolite, an onyx and a jasper." (Exodus 28:17-20)
The lament to the king of Tyre, which was plainly dual in nature. The earlier verses spoke of the human king of Tyre, whereas these later verses described the fall of Satan (see That Old Serpent, Did God Create The Devil?, The Lame Duck, What Does Satan Look Like? and Could Satan Repent?):
"Son of man, take up a lament concerning the king of Tyre and say to him: 'This is what The Sovereign Lord says: "'You were the model of perfection, full of wisdom and perfect in beauty. You were in Eden, the garden of God; every precious stone adorned you: ruby, topaz and emerald, chrysolite, onyx and jasper, sapphire, turquoise and beryl. Your settings and mountings were made of gold; on the day you were created they were prepared. You were anointed as a guardian cherub, for so I ordained you. You were on the holy mount of God; you walked among the fiery stones. You were blameless in your ways from the day you were created till wickedness was found in you." (Ezekiel 28:12-15)
And in describing the New Jerusalem (see The Kingdom of God) -
"The wall was made of jasper, and the city of pure gold, as pure as glass. The foundations of the city walls were decorated with every kind of precious stone. The first foundation was jasper, the second sapphire, the third chalcedony, the fourth emerald, the fifth sardonyx, the sixth carnelian, the seventh chrysolite, the eighth beryl, the ninth topaz, the tenth chrysoprase, the eleventh jacinth, and the twelfth amethyst. The twelve gates were twelve pearls, each gate made of a single pearl. The great street of the city was of pure gold, like transparent glass. I did not see a Temple in the city, because The Lord God Almighty and The Lamb are its Temple. The city does not need the sun or the moon to shine on it, for The Glory of God gives it light, and The Lamb is its lamp. The nations will walk by its light, and the kings of the earth will bring their splendor into it. On no day will its gates ever be shut, for there will be no night there. The glory and honor of the nations will be brought into it. Nothing impure will ever enter it, nor will anyone who does what is shameful or deceitful, but only those whose names are written in The Lamb's book of life." (Revelation 21:18-27)
Fact Finder: Is wisdom more valuable than rubies?