Memphis was the ancient capital city of Lower Egypt (i.e. northern Egypt, "lower" based on the northward flow of The Nile River through the Nile Delta into The Mediterranean Sea). The name is derived from men-nefer-pepi, the name given to the pyramid of Pepi I. The city was located on the west side of the Nile River, just south of the modern capital city of Cairo. Memphis is believed by some historians to have been founded by Menes, a First Dynasty pharaoh, about 3000 BC, and became the capital during the Third Dynasty about 2600 BC (see The Ancient Egyptians). It was the principle city of Egypt for about 300 years before being eclipsed by other cities such as Thebes. Little remains today of its ancient architecture.

In The Bible, Memphis is only mentioned as such in Hosea 9:6:

Memphis is however mentioned a number of times in the Scriptures by its Hebrew name Noph (although some Bible translations use Memphis anyway), all in the books of the Prophets:

Fact Finder: In what part of Egypt did the Israelites live in the 4 centuries before the Exodus?
See The Land Of Goshen

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