Commercial inns were practically unknown in the very earliest times, as a result of a combination of lack of development and the custom of being hospitable to strangers:
By New Testament times however, public inns had become quite common throughout the Greek (see Ancient Empires - Greece) and Roman (see Ancient Empires - Rome) world. The simplest inns of the first century AD were merely a protected or walled-in area around a well. Larger inns had separate rooms which surrounded the central courtyard, but as with the simpler inns, the animals usually remained with the people.
One of the most famous "no vacancy" incidents involving inns was the birth of Jesus Christ which probably occurred in September or October of 4 BC. As many are well aware, the actual calendar date of the birth of Jesus Christ is unknown. The Bible makes no mention of it, and there is no trustworthy record of it to be found in any other source, religious or secular. Nearly all Christian-professing churches, Roman Catholic or Protestant, recognize the fact that although the birth of Jesus Christ has come to be observed on December 25 on the Roman calendar (at the same time that the Romans held their pagan Saturnalia festival, which was a time of merry-making and exchange of gifts), it is definitely not His actual date of birth. Many theologians and religious scholars readily agree that His birth was almost certainly not even in the winter, based upon, among other things, one of the most well-known verses of the Bible: "there were shepherds out in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night" (Luke 2:8 RSV). Shepherds in Judea did not leave their flocks out in winter - they were brought in well before the cold winter-rains began (see Winter):
"And Joseph also went up from Galilee, from the city of Nazareth, to Judea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem, because he was of the house and lineage of David, to be enrolled with Mary, his betrothed, who was with child. And while they were there, the time came for her to be delivered. And she gave birth to her first-born son and wrapped Him in swaddling cloths, and laid Him in a manger, because there was no place for them in the inn."
"And in that region there were shepherds out in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night. And an angel of the Lord appeared to them, and the glory of the Lord shone around them, and they were filled with fear. And the angel said to them, "Be not afraid; for behold, I bring you good news of a great joy which will come to all the people; for to you is born this day in the city of David a Savior, Who is Christ the Lord. And this will be a sign for you: you will find a babe wrapped in swaddling cloths and lying in a manger."
"And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God and saying, "Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace among men with whom he is pleased!"
"When the angels went away from them into heaven, the shepherds said to one another, "Let us go over to Bethlehem and see this thing that has happened, which the Lord has made known to us." And they went with haste, and found Mary and Joseph, and the babe lying in a manger" (Luke 2:1-16 RSV)
Fact Finder: Did Jesus' lesson of the "Good Samaritan" involve an inn?