Pergamum, or Pergamos, was a major city of Mysia, in Asia Minor, in what is today Turkey. Located about 15 miles / 24 kilometers inland from The Aegean Sea, it was the capital for the Pergamenian kings until about 133 BC when it came under Roman control. The Romans, who were yet to attain their greatest extent of territorial greatness (see Ancient Empires - Rome), made it the central city of their new province of "Asia."
In 29 BC a temple for the worship of Caesar Augustus (the Roman emperor who later called that famous census that resulted in Jesus Christ being born in Bethlehem i.e. Luke 2:1) was erected in Pergamum, however worship of him and subsequent emperors (see Emperor) was long rivaled there by the cult of the pagan god Zeus, the symbol of which was a serpent. Pergamum's throne-like altar of Zeus, that some have speculated was the symbolic "Satan's throne" reference in Revelation 2:13, is now in the Berlin Museum.
Parchment, an ancient writing material made from the processed skins of animals, most often that of calves, sheep and goats, was invented in Pergamum to free the great library there from dependence upon imported papyrus, mainly from Egypt.
Pergamum is mentioned in The Bible as one of the "seven churches of Asia." Christians there were rebuked for deviating from the truth that they once held by following the idolatrous and immoral teachings of Balaam and the Nicolaitans. Antipas, a true and faithful Christian of whom little else is known, was martyred in Pergamum.
"The words of Him Who has the sharp two-edged sword. 'I know where you dwell, where Satan's throne is; you hold fast My Name and you did not deny My faith even in the days of Antipas my witness, my faithful one, who was killed among you, where Satan dwells."
"But I have a few things against you: you have some there who hold the teaching of Balaam, who taught Balak to put a stumbling block before the sons of Israel, that they might eat food sacrificed to idols and practice immorality. So you also have some who hold the teaching of the Nicolaitans. Repent then. If not, I will come to you soon and war against them with the sword of My mouth." (Revelation 2:12-16 RSV)
Fact Finder: From Whom did the Book of Revelation originate?
(a) from John to us
(b) from Jesus Christ to John to us
(c) from God to Jesus Christ to John to us
Note: "The revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave Him to show to His servants what must soon take place; and he made it known by sending His angel to His servant John"