The land of Uz was perhaps made most famous by Job, a very righteous man, as described by God Himself (Job 1:8), who lost everything - his family, his health and his great wealth - in a severe test that God allowed Satan to inflict upon him. After it was over, God restored it all, and much more, back to him.
The precise location of the land of Uz is uncertain, although The Bible record does provide some clues. The land may have originally been named after Uz, who was the son of Aram, and grandson of Shem (Genesis 10:23, 1 Chronicles 1:17). One of Job's friends, Eliphaz, came from Teman (Job 4:1), which is in Idumea. Uz was subject to attacks from Sabeans and Chaldeans (Job 1:15,17). It had to have fertile pastures, since Job had many thousands of animals. It had at least one major city, since Job sat at the city gate.
The two most likely locations for the land of Uz is in Arabia, east of Petra (today, northwestern Saudi Arabia), or more likely, in Bashan, east of The Sea Of Galilee and south of Damascus (today, western Jordan or southern Syria).
Fact Finder: Was Job aware of the future resurrection of the dead?
See also The Last Day