Adleman, R.H. & Walton, G. (1969). The Champagne Campaign. London: Leslie Frewin of London.
Adleman, R.H. & Walton, G. (1966). The Devil's Brigade. Philadelphia: Chilton Books.
Adleman, R.H. & Walton, G. (1968). Rome Fell Today. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
Beaumont. R.A. (1974). Military Elites, Special Fighting Units in the Modern World. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
Beaumont, R.A. (1988). Special Operations and Elite Units, 1939-1988: A Research Guide. Westport: Greenwood Press Inc.
Burchard, J.E. & Thiesmeyer, L.R. (1947). Combat Scientists. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
Burhans, R.D. (1947). The First Special Service Force: A War History of the North Americans, 1942-1944. Washington: Infantry Journal Press.
Burton, H. (1971). The Ski Troops. New York: Little Brown & Company.
Chandler, A.D. (1970). The Papers of Dwight David Eisenhower, The War Years. Baltimore: John Hopkins Press.
Cohen, E.A. (1978). Commandos and Politicians: Elite Military Units in Modern Democracies. Harvard: Harvard University Press.
Cohen, S. (1981). The Forgotten War; a Pictorial History of World War II in Alaska and Northwestern Canada. Missoula, Mont.: Pictorial Histories Pub. Co.
Dawson, J.R. & Kutemeier, D. (1986). First Special Service Force, 1942-44 . Military Illustrated: Past and Present, June/July.
Dawson, J.R. & Kutemeier, D. (1986). First Special Service Force, 1942-44 . Military Illustrated: Past and Present. August/September.
Dzuiban, S.W. (1959). Military Relations Between The United States and Canada, 1939-1945. Washington: Department of the Army.
Eggleston, W. (1950) Scientist at War. Toronto: Oxford University Press.
Garfield, B. (1971). The Thousand Mile War. Toronto: Ballantine Books.
Garrett, R. (1980). The Raiders: The Elite Strike Forces That Altered the Course of War and History. New York: Van Nostrand, Reinhold Company.
Galloway, S. (1991). A Devilish Experiment. Legion Magazine, March 1991.
Harcup, G. (1970). The Challenge of War. New York: Taplinger Publishing Company.
Hogan, D.W. (1993). Raiders or Elite Infantry? Westport: Greenwood Press.
Kelly, R. (1989). Special Operations and National Purpose. Lexington: Lexington Books.
Lampe, D. (1959). Pyke. The Unknown Genius. London: Evans Brothers Ltd.
Low, F. (1978). Canadian Airborne Forces, 1942-1878: A Graduating Essay Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements, in the Honours Programme. Victoria: University of Victoria.
Neely, A.L. (1993). Index to First Special Service Force Newspaper and Magazine Articles. London, Ontario: Privately Published.
Stacey, C.P. (1966). Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War: Six Years of War. Ottawa: Queen's Printer.
Story, B. (1987) Cowboys and Canucks. Legion Magazine. July/August,
at the Directorate of History
(D58) Memo d/29 Mar 45 re flags of 1st Cdn SS Bn.
(195) Summary of corresp on Plough Project (org of Spec Service Force) Apr 43. Memo d/2 Feb 44 re emp of 1st SS Bn.
(D197) Rept on visit of DCGS(B) to Plough Project (1st Spec Service Force) Helena Montana 5/6 Apr 43.
(D30) Corresp, recommendations, reports, minutes of meetings, tables of pay and allowances, etc re financial arrangements for 2nd Cdn Para Bn d/28 Jul/5 Sep 42.
(D256) Corresp, msgs memos, We's instrs PC's, etc, re org, comp, mob, financial arrangements, disbandment etc of 1st Cdn Special Service Bn, d/13 Jun 42/27 Feb 45.
(D1) Account of 1st Cdn Special Service Bn (including background of organization) prepared by Maj J. W. Ostiguy.
(D2) Lists and citations for honours and awards granted to personnel of 1 Cdn Spec Service Bn, d/Dec 43/Jan 45.
(D3) Instrs and directives for 1st Cdn Spec Service Bn, d/Jun 43/Dec 44.
(D4) Daily bulletins of Hq 1st Spec Service Force d/Jun 43/Dec 44.
(D5) Org and admin corresp and instrs for 1st Cdn SS Bn d/Jun 42/Dec 44.
(D7) Monthly reports of 1st Cdn Spec Service Bn, d/Aug 42/Jan 45.
(D1) Notes on interview with Col. D. D. Williamson, 1st Cdn SS Bn, 1st SS Force, re Hist. Sketch on Force activities, 1943/Dec 43.
(D43) Corresp and instrs re org and admin of 1st Cdn SS Bn (2nd Cdn Para Bn) d/16 Jul 42/20 May 43.
(D2) Report on the activities of 1st Cdn SS Bn, Kiska, 1943, period 1 Aug/30 Sep 43.
The Canadian Airborne Regiment
Alaska at War (book order form)
Field Library - Special Ops Bibliography
Canadian Army Home Page Personnel Locator
Kirk, Frank S.
Helped to trained the Force in hand to hand combat.
Paratroopers Data Base Find Old Buddies
Prince, Thomas George
Prince, Thomas George
Prince, Thomas George
Walker, Edwin A,
1st Canadian Parachute Battalion, 6th Airborne Division
Airborne Regiment Association of Canada
A Brief Overview of Canadian Special Operations and Airborne Forces
Canadian Airborne Forces
Canadian Airborne Regiment Home Page
The Canadian Parachute Centre
Native Soldiers Foreign Battlefields
Airborne and Special Operations Patches
Special Service Force
SOF Mythology: Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
U.S. Army Special Forces: Special Forces Insignia
Montana Historical Society
99th Battalion (Separate) - US Army
The Airborne Mystique
Page created by Robert (Bob) Pettit.
The First Special Servce
Page created by Ed. Thomas.
Interrogation: Special Forces
The Korean War
Rangers: Selected Combat Operations in World War II
Operations Com: World War Two Special Operations Units and Missions
U.S. Army Special Operations in World War II
By David W. Hogan, Jr.
History - The Home Front
Days of the Force
by William Story
Helena Montana (City) Homepage
History - Alaska
B-24s and a Bombing Raid Over Kiska
Aleutian Islands 1942-1943: The Aleutian Campaign
Aleutian Island: The U.S. Army Campaigns of World War II
Back to Attu
Bearing Pacific Ranch History Site - The Fort Glenn Historic Site
Dealing Realistically With Fratricide
Kiska Habor Aleutian
Site details the recent archeological investigations of World War II materials in Kiska Harbor, Aleutians Islands by Lary E. Murphy and Daniel J. Leninan.
Legacy: A Quarterly Publication of the Museums of the Aleutians
"When American forces attempted to drive the Japanese from the Aleutian island of Kiska in August 1943, they found an unexpected enemy."
United States Navy Combat Narrative: The Aleutians Campaign June 1942--August 1943
History - Italy
- Italy 1943-1945
"Canadian troops played a vital role in teh 20-month Mediterranean campaign which led to the liberation of Italy during the Second World War. In fact, this campaign was the first large-scale land operation in which the Canaidan Army stationed in Great Britain took part"
19 Combat Engineers CO B The Road to Rome as I Remember
Dollar Mountian to San Pietro
36th Infantry Division Association, Memories Never Forgotten, by Colonel by Vincent M. Lockhart.
Special Operations in the Mediterranean
World War I I History of the 2nd Chemical Motor Bn.
History - Anzio
Division in World War II: May Offensive
Allied Agony At Anzio
Allied Agony at Anzio
General Clark's Decision To Drive On Rome
Into The Lion's Den - Anzio, Italy, 1944
Operations Reports for the 337th Regiment May 1944
Timeble summary of 337th Infantry, 85th Division.
and the Fall of Rome
Information on the 141st Infantry Regiment, 36th Infantry Division's advance to Rome in 1944.
World War II History of the 2nd Chemical Mortar Bn
History - Southern France
American Battle Monuments
Commission: Sicily-Rome American Cemetery and Memorial
The World War II Sicily-Rome American Cemetery and Memorial is situated at the edge of the town of Neuttuno, Italy. It is just east of Anzio and thrity miles south of Rome.
Books Of Remembrance
"The Books of Remembrance contain the names of Canadians who fought in wars and die either during of after them. All the books are kept in the Memorial Chamber located in the Peace Tower on Parliament Hill."
Canadian Virtual War Memorial
"Over 110,000 Canadians and Newfoundlanders made the ultimate sacrifice in World War One and Two. Thanks to the generosity of Commonwealth War Graves Commission you can now search the Canadian and Newfoundland databes to find the final resting places or memorails in which these brave souls are honoured"
Special Service Force 1942-1944: In Memoriam
"The First Special Service Force made no distinctions when it went into battle - its men had had the common cause of freedom at their side and the common denominator of corage in their hearts. They were neither Canadians nor Americans. They were in General Eisenhower's term liberators" President Ronald Reagan.
Honours and Awards
50th Anniversary - First Special Service Force [Senate - August 12, 1992]
Burns Applauds Highway Memorial
Forgotten Beterans Remembered With Highway Rededication
Home Page - B Coy 1CPB(LH)
Strategic Alaska Towns and Islands of WWII
Videoflicks.com - The Devil's Brigade
Anzio Beachhead Museum
The Anzio Beachhead Museum was inaugurated on January 22nd, 1994,the 50th Anniversary of the Allied landing. It is housed on one of the ground floor rooms of the Villa Adele.
The Canadian Airborne Forces Museum
The Museum of the Aleutians
Museum of the Regiments
Special Unit Remembered
Local Vet Wants Secret Unit Honoured
Article about Jim Crozier, member of the FSSF.
Helena Independent Record
Died May 12, 1996.
Died July 26, 1999.
Died February 20, 1999.
Died April 20, 1999.
99th Battalion (separate) - U.S. Army
Special Forces (USA)
5th Special Forces Group (Airborne)
A Quick History of Army Special Force
The Early Years: 1961-1965
History of the 2nd Rangers
Sine Pari: Without Equal: The Story of Army Special Operations
U. S. Army Rangers
U.S. Army Special Forces: The Green Berets
U.S. Army Special Forces: The
The Devil's Brigade: The Elite First Special Service Force
Johnson 41 Rife
V-42 "Force Knife" Stiletto
Weasel / M29
1935-1945: The Arsenal of Democracy Goes To War
MFHF Picture Page
Tracked Vehicles at American Heritage Park
II Studebaker Trucks
Saturday --- Warning order to move received at 2200 hrs. --- zero hr. 0900 hrs., 3rd. The majority of officers and men are away on leave and not due back until 1300 hrs. Sunday.
August 2, 1942 - Ottawa Concentration, Ontario
Sunday --- Medical and dental inspections today -- also a last minute issue of clothing and necessaries. The Men spent most of the day signing an Canadian-American agreement of service. Col. Sherwood was in offering advice and helping to arrange the move. About 2200 hrs. The Canadian--American agreement changed. Everything laid on for 0430 hrs. in the morning.
August 3, 1942 - Ottawa Concentration, Ontario
Monday --- Reveille at 0430 hrs. Dentals to be finished -- the new agreement App "A" to be signed. All went smoothly and the unit entrained at 0830 hrs, moving off at 0900 hrs.
Major R. A. Keane, the Lake Superior Regiment (motor) was in charge of the party which consisted of 27 officers (including an M.O.) and 306 other ranks.
Officers on Train
Capt. J. F. R. Akehurst, Algonquin Regt.
Capt. J. V. J. Biscoe. O.T.C. Brockville
Capt. J. G. Bourne, R.H.C. Paymaster
Capt. T. C. MacWilliam, N.B. Rangers
Lieut. J. Ariott, 31 C.A.B.T.C.
Lieut. J. P. Cerat, C1-45 Sorel Que.
Lieut. D. J. Fletcher, A 12-Farnham
Lieut. T. C. Gordm, CABTC, Ottawa
Lieut. W. H. Langdon, A-10 I.T.C. Borden
Lieut. C. LeGault, 31 C.A.B.T.C.
Lieut. H. M. McIntosh, C.A.T.C. Petawawa
Lieut. J. L. McKenna, C.A.T.C.
2/Lieut. F. B. Atto, O.T.C. Brockville
2/Lieut. J. G. Boulard, H. A. A-2 CATC
2/Lieut. W. R. Bennett, OTC Brockville
2/Lieut. S. R. Dymond, OTC Brockville
2/Lieut. L. G. D'Artois, OTC Brockville
2/Lieut. M. H. Goodwin, OTC Brockville
2/Lieut. M. Lebon, OTC Brockville
2/Lieut. R. A. MacDonald, OTC Brockville
2/Lieut. C. J. McNair, OTC Brockville
2/Lieut. G. M. Neilson, OTC Brockville
2/Lieut. H. H. Tucker, OTC Brockville
2/Lieut. G. L. VanKoughnett, OTC, Brockville
2/Lieut. S. C. Waters, OTC Brockville
Sleeping was a pastime most vigorously indulged in for the remainder of the day. Mr. Douglass, C.P.R. representative, was the passenger agent aboard the train. we have 15 coaches, one of which was dropped at North Bay where we had one hour for exercise.
August 4, 1942 - On Train Enroute
Tuesday --- Sleeping continued to be the order of the day. Stopped at Fort William for exercise at noon. The meals are very good and everyone seems to be enjoying the trip. There has been not trouble on any sort.
August 5, 1942 - On Train Enroute
Wednesday --- To-day across the prairies and exercise at Lethbridge. Had to make shift mess dinner tonight on board train in order to toast his Majesty the King for what may be the last time on British soil for some time. Major Keane explained the reasons and proposed the toast. God Save the King was sung. The toast in port, kindly donated by Mr. Douglass, drunk. It will certainly be the last dinner with the same personnel.
About midnight Coutts on the U.S.A. Canada border was reached and 10 officers and 151 other ranks from the west jointed our train. Major W. S. Oliver, Canadian Scottish was O.C. party.
Capt. E. D. E. Hoskin, R.C.E.
Lieut. V. C. Jackson, Wpy Grenadiers
Lieut. J. A. Jennings, P. of W.
Lieut. G. W. McFadden, V. Rifles
Lieut. W. J. Rinn, 100 T.C.
Lieut. J. Shaw, 120 T.C.
Lieut. J. F. Vincent, Reg de Hull
Lieut. W.M.W. Wilson, 122 T.C.
Lieut. A. P. McCrirck, O.O.C.H. of C.
August 6, 1942 - Ft. William Henry Harrison, Helena, Montana
Combined parties at Fort William Henry Harrison, Helena, Montana, U.S.A. at 1200 hrs.
Quarters are small square huts with tent tops, two or three officers to a hut. 4 other ranks, two Canadian & 2 Americans where possible. Camp has only been under construction two weeks but progressing rapidly. After a much needed shower Canadian Officers met their O.C. Lt. Col. J. G. McQueen who had come by plane the night before and officially took command. Also met Col. Frederick, O. C. Joint Forces who outlined briefly the plans for training etc.
August 7, 1942 - Ft. William Henry Harrison, Helena, Montana
Reveille at 0515 hrs., breakfast 0545 hrs., training begins at 0630 hrs., dinner 1200 hrs., supper 1730 hrs., usually lectures for an hours or so after supper. Pay procedure was discussed with American official Col. Conner, Finance officer from Settle. Canadian procedure to continue as far as Canadian personnel are concerned.
August 8, 1942 - Ft. William Henry Harrison, Helena, Montana
Firs pay parade held after training in afternoon to give everyone a little American currency for the week end. A general truck to Helena. Populace reported very hospitable.
This is the first army camp every to have been stationed here. The fort was previously used for two weeks a year for reserve force.
August 9, 1942 - Ft. William Henry Harrison, Helena, Montana
No reveille a day of rest.
August 10, 1942 - Ft. William Henry Harrison, Helena, Montana
Can. officer personnel taken for a flight over near by country. Landed at Butte and were taken for a drive about two by Chief of Police and Sheriff.
August 11, 1942 - Ft. William Henry Harrison, Helena, Montana
8 officers and 141 other Ranks arrived at 1530 hrs. from Calgary in charge of Capt. R. W. Becket and were met by Lt. Col. J. G. McQueen and Lt. Col. Shinberger. The other officers included.
Major A. C. Tate
Capt. J. M. Secter
Lieut. M. A. Cotton
Lieut. W. G. Curran
Lieut. F. C. Peters
Lieut. D. H. Taylor
2/Lt. J. G. Simms
Lt. Col. McQueen address all Canadians at 1900 hrs. on the training ground pointing out that although living conditions were generally new, improvements were being sought and the present stage of training was very important, hence the necessity for being in the camp by 2130 hrs. at night. Complaints were few and a feeling of better things to come seemed to exist throughout at the finish.
August 12, 1942 - Ft. William Henry Harrison, Helena, Montana
15 other ranks were returned to #13 DD Calgary for disposal mostly for
medical reasons and few who had decided not to jump.
August 13, 1942 - Ft. William Henry Harrison, Helena, Montana
Lt. Col. McQueen made first jump of Canadians, got a broken ankle but enjoyed the experience of jumping. Too windy for amy more to jump in afternoon.
August 14, 1942 - Ft. William Henry Harrison, Helena, Montana
All Canadian officers of first draft jumped today. Thirty five jumped, two casualties. Exits from plane generally bad and but landing good.
August 15, 1942 - Ft. William Henry Harrison, Helena, Montana
Officers had their second jump and other ranks started. Still quite a number asking to be returned to Canada, 36 to date.
August 16, 1942 - Ft. William Henry Harrison, Helena, Montana
51 other ranks arrived from Calgary. Lieut. J. Tomkinson in charge.
August 17, 1942 - Ft. William Henry Harrison, Helena, Montana
23 other ranks returned to #13 DD. Some others making a first jump felt they could not make another. 6 refused to jump.
August 18, 1942 - Ft. William Henry Harrison, Helena, Montana
1st Regt. completed their jumping today and will begin regimental training tomorrow.
August 19, 1942 - Ft. William Henry Harrison, Helena, Montana
44 other ranks arrived from Calgary and two officers, Major D. D. Williamson and Capt. T. P. Gilday. 43 other ranks returned to #13 DD and one officer Lieut. J. F. Vincent.
August 20, 1942 - Ft. William Henry Harrison, Helena, Montana
Major Keane out of hosp. wearing caliper.
August 21, 1942 - Ft. William Henry Harrison, Helena, Montana
25 men returned to #13 D.D. Too windy for jumping. Lt. Col. McQueen back on duty still att. to hosp. First publication of qualified parachutists.
August 22, 1942 - Ft. William Henry Harrison, Helena, Montana
About 300 men were jumped today, very few casualties.
August 23, 1942 - Ft. William Henry Harrison, Helena, Montana
Pay seems to be coming to a head. A decision being required between pay at Can or American rates. Can rates only include para. pay of $60 and $30 American rates even less U. S. Income tax will be more favourable and will be suggested.
August 24, 1942 - Ft. William Henry Harrison, Helena, Montana
Over 300 men were jumped this morning. Major Keane & Capt. Bourne left at 0630 by air to procure 6 officers and 150 other ranks. Major Keane to Debert. Capt. Bourne to Camp Borden.
August 25, 1942 - Ft. William Henry Harrison, Helena, Montana
A bad day for jumpers, an unusually large number balked at the door. Casualties were also high compared to previous days. 37 admitted to hosp. Of 17 Canadians interviewed who wished to go back 15 had not been able to make the jump. They are now all given a second chance to try if they wish. Decided by phone today that Canadians will receive American rates of pay and pay U. S. income tax, mechanics to be worked out & paymaster advised of proceedure.
August 26, 1942 - Ft. William Henry Harrison, Helena, Montana
Finishing up the jumping over 400 Canadians have qualified & will now commence regimental training and shooting on the ranges. 19 other ranks returned to #13 D.D. Most of them so scared they could not leave the plane.
August 27, 1942 - Ft. William Henry Harrison, Helena, Montana
Major Williamson & Capt. Gilday made their first jump this morning, both successful. A cold wet afternoon. The first real rain since our arrival.
August 28, 1942 - Ft. William Henry Harrison, Helena, Montana
All companies in force were instructed chiefly in all three American weapons mainly (1) Machine Gun (2) The Garand M 1 rifle (3) The Browning Automatic Rifle. One regiment finished up their basic work on the rifle rank and other company finished leasire work on the pistol range. All Canadians were fitted for the new American uniform and all personnel of the force were shown several army instructional films. Lieut. A. T. Storrs arrived this afternoon as replacement off. to the force from Calg.
30 other ranks returned to Calgary.
August 29, 1942 - Ft. William Henru Harrison, Helena, Montana
Training as per schedule. Col. Frederick pinned wings on 1125 qualified parachutists.
August 30, 1942 - Ft. William Henry Harrison, Helena, Montana
123 ranks arrived from Canada. 50 from Camp Borden, 73 from Debert Military Camp also five officers Capt. J. G. Bourne was in charge of the party. They came via St. Paul Minn. instead of Lethbridge, Alta. as formerly.
The officers included:
Lieut. Kennedy, C. I.
Lieut. McWilliams, D. I.
assigned to their companies after dinner and settled in their quarters and were given the evening off.
August 31, 1942 - Ft. William Henry Harrison, Helena, Montana
A cold wet morning. No jumping today. Training consisting of range practice, route marches, lectures, etc.
The Officers Club was opened today not completely furnished but soon will be.
Huts are being winterized. Three other rank huts are joined together & the officers huts are being done separately.
There have been 1 officer & 175 other ranks returned to Canada this month.
There have been 35 officers & 435 other ranks qualified as
September 1, 1942
A few A.W.O.L.'s after pay night. Major Keane returned for Debert Camp via Ottawa with twenty-one O/R's at 1255 hrs.
September 2, 1942
Winterizing of quarters progressing rapidly. Three O/R's huts are put together, boarded to the top and covered with insulation material them tar papered. The roof boarded and tar papered. Officer's Huts are being treated similarly only are being done separately.
Six O/R's arrived from Debert to complete this additional Canada quota of 150 O/R's.
September 3, 1942
Patients beginning to go A.W.O.L. from hospital they are given lenient leave and some take advantage of it to visit near by towns, Butte in particular.
Those in down town hospitals seems to get leave from nine A.M. to nine P.M.
September 4, 1942
Lieut. Storrs, A. T. made his first jump this morning receiving knee injury. Three O/R's who had stated they couldn't jump to Capt. Ellis their instructor found themselves unexpectedly in the air over the training field. They all jumped successfully.
Canadians jumped all afternoon, two balked at the door and one was injured, a good days jumping. They threw one loaded equipment chute out before each group of jumpers.
A pay parade was held for all the recent Canadians arrivals after supper.
September 5, 1942
Telegram from Adj. Gen. selects Lt. Col. McQueen for special duty in Washington and appoints Major Williamson Commanding Officer and Lt. Col. effective date of Transfer. Transfer of command took place in the afternoon.
September 6, 1942
Lt. Col. McQueen left at 9:30 driving to Great Falls to catch plane for Medicine Hat and on to Ottawa.
September 7, 1942
Lieut. Cerat returned to District Depot 13 this afternoon with two O/R's. A third O/R was detained pending a court of inquiry into his injury and a fourth was A.W.O.L., Pte. McLaren.
September 8, 1942
Pte. McLaren surrendered to Capt. Biscoe this morning and was put under close arrest to avoid any further nonsense. He has a long record of absence with leave, unfortunately unable to obtain a witness to substantiate his absence. Training continues according to schedule under real summer weather conditions again.
September 9, 1942
Ptes, McLaren and Gayford returned to District Dept 13 this afternoon a sigh of relief from the administration officers. A sixty mile an hour gale after supper, much dust until rain subdued it and quite cold. Four tents blown dow, lasted an hour or so.
September 10, 1942
Parade in town in interests of War Bond Sales.
Service Force asked to participate, declining on grounds there was a job to be don and time could not be spared from training. A few staff cars and Jeeps were allowed to go in the parade and station wagons and trucks took some of the men in Hospitals.
September 11, 1942
Col. Frederick returned from Washington and announced a number of American Officer promotions after supper. A few compass marches were out during the night.
September 12, 1942
Quiet day. First officers dance was held at the Golf and Country Club in the evening, was highly successful, over 150 officers and their partners attending.
September 13, 1942
A day of rest, some officers doing some shooting with the Carbine in the afternoon.
September 14, 1942
Authorization received to send hospital patients unable to remain with the Battalion home via Calgary, a very busy day getting the necessary clearance etc. completed, gathering equipment and paying to date.
September 15, 1942
Major Oliver, Lieut. McKenna and Lieut. Taylor left by Army plane from Helena airport for Calgary at 10:30 hrs. along with twenty-one other ranks nearly all fractures and most seemed really sorry to leave, it is hoped that as many are already qualified Parachutists, they may be given a change to join another Parachute Bn. Arrangements were immediately made for a second group to be returned tomorrow. The regular Canadian Mid-Month pay parade was held after supper as yet no word received on the new proposed pay procedure. Dissatisfaction general over non-receipt of parachute pay.
September 16, 1942
Major Keane, Lieut. Kennedy and Lieut Storrs along with nineteen other ranks left by Army plane for Calgary at 1430 hrs. Originally scheduled to leave at 0930 hrs. but plane grounded, very bad weather all the way. Cleared by noon but continued cold.
September 17, 1942
A really dirty day, snow on the hills and a blizzard during the morning. Over 3" of dry snow reported on Mt. Helena, sloppy and muddy in camp. H. Q. Coy. did shooting on the range and along with Service Bn., were all measured for winter uniforms after supper, also issued with respirators (Gas masks in American Army)
September 18, 1942
Weather clearing and warming. Training according to schedule.
September 19, 1942
Training this week included cross country marching building towards 140 steps per minute/. The carry over group, new arrivals who have completed their parachute training, were required to complete the firing of all weapons and received instructions on other subjects in the evening. The 3rd Regiment went on a weekend hike west of camp and had all their equipment and food dropped to them in equipment containers. It was dropped in a fairly high wind from 150 to 200 ft and reports are that it landed very close to the men.
September 20, 1942
A real summer day. The weekend hike began returning to camp by platoons from noon to about 1500 hrs.
September 21, 1942
Training this wee will for the most part be reviewing the last 7 weeks, preparatory for examinations to be held next week. There will be in addition night schemes and a march and climb to the top of Mt. Helena.
September 22, 1942
A beautiful day, bright and warm. Another group of 20 O/R's to be cleared to return to Canada tomorrow by plane, practically all hospital patients.
September 23, 1942
One more O/R added to the list to return to Calgary, but plane grounded on report from Calgary of ceiling zero, snow and sleet, same report at noon so trip called off today. Several platoons made their trip to the top of Mt. Helena. A number of night problems on scouting and patrolling and compass marching were completed.
September 24, 1942
Weather still bad between here and Calgary. Trip again called off with one more O/R being added to the list now totalling 22. The paymaster phone Lt. Col. Spink of the Paymaster's General Officer concerning the paying of parachute pay this end month. Conditions unchanged by promises of instructions to be phoned received. Instructions in the use of Foreign weapons being give. The whole force was paraded to the ranges at 2030 hrs. to see the firing of 3 rounds of tracer bullets from a German Anti-Tank Gun.
September 25, 1942
Cold but clearing. Plane finally got away with 22 O/R's at 1400 hours. Lieut Ariott went up with them and returned. Nearly 3 hours going up bucking a head wind, got back in a little over 1 1/2 hours.
September 26, 1942
Warm and bright again. Another group got off for a weekend hike into the hills. The officers had another dance at the Helena Golf and Country Club, was even more successful than the last one. A larger orchestra and a better supper, went on later and was free what more could they ask.
September 27, 1942
A perfect day. Quite a few went hunting. Members of the post being granted the hunting and fishing privileges of residents of the State of Montana.
September 28, 1942
This week the training schedule calls for tests in all subjects and will involved many night schemes Wired Paymaster-General for reply re: last Thursday's telephone call.
September 29, 1942
Lt. Col. Spink called Capt. Biscoe this morning and advised him that no additional pay had yet been authorized for this Battalion and that American rates had not been authorized. Lt. Col. Williamson phoned Lt. Col. McQueen but nothing definite to report so it was arranged to call all Canadians together before pay parade tomorrow and explained the situation to them. They are expecting parachute pay and it is going to be pretty tough trying to explain that nothing has been authorized after eight weeks down here.
September 30, 1942
All Canadian were paraded to the theatre at 1645 hours and Lt. Col. Williamson explained the who pay situation to them, all that had been done and reminded them of the form they signed before coming here that they would accept Canadian rates of pay and that he could make no promises as to what if any additional pay would be authorized or wyhem.
This is probably one of the finest groups of men ever assembled, their morale has been extremely high despite the arduous training they came into the theatre singing and laughing but left a very sullen and sober bunch. There were very few complaining but their morale has been very obviously shaken.
To men cannot work together under similar circumstances until pay day when one received two, three or more times the pay of the others without a definite felling of resentment.
It is earnestly hoped that this situation will be rectified and in the
connection it is strongly recommended that Parachute Pay at the rate of
$100.00 per month for officers and $50.00 per month for other ranks be
authorized at the earliest possible date to be retroactive to the date
personnel were taken on strength of the 2nd Cdn. Parachute Bn., ----The
Lord help us if the situation is cleared up before the mid month pay.
October 1, 1942
A few men over the hill this morning after pay night and with the appearance of Henry King and his orchestra in town for one night engagement it would seem to prove the men are still willing to buckle down despite their disappointment at not receiving their parachute pay. They are not complaining but assuming a watching waiting altitude.
October 2, 1942
Most of the week's tests were completed to-day. The majority of officers were taken to Marysville, about 25 miles from here, where the demolished an old unused steel bridge. They had a ton of dynamite at their disposal and reports are that they really blew it to bits.
October 3, 1942
Each regiment was parade to the theatre starting at 1300 hours for one hour each while the chief instructor explained their weaknesses in his sphere of instruction during their week of tests. Lt. Col. Williamson's regiment No 2 won with 7 points against 2 for the 1st Reg't and 2 for the 3rd Regt.
October 4, 1942
A beautiful bright warm day, most of the camp spent it outside hunting, shooting, hiking etc.
October 5, 1942
This week will be mostly on demolitions for a group of picked officers who will later act as instructors. There will be radio instruction given to nine men per Company.
Parachute jump training, for about 36 who had not yet jumped will be given.
There will be instruction of flame thrower, the prevention of forest fires and throwing of hand grenades.
The Clerical staff started a conditioning program with a short march back of the camp for about an hours duration, 0700 hrs to 0800 hrs, the rest of the week will be devoted to unarmed combat.
Some night practice placing and exploding charges while controlled charges were set of near by to give the effect of active conditions.
Everyone must go over the obstacle course each day.
October 6, 1942
The officers, picked for advance study in demolitions, left at 0700 hours to blow a bridge near Butte returning for dinner and left again at 1300 hours by truck for Libby, about 300 miles north west of here, where they will blow an old bridge about 3,150 spans. They expect to arrive at Libby at 0400 hours tomorrow, having breakfast, blow the bridge and return by evening. The first regiment left at 0700 hours on a force march 36 miles - to Marysville and return- full equipment plus two improved ski poles.
October 7, 1942
The second regiment left at 0700 hours for forced march to and from Marysville. The officers demolition class returned late, had good experience as they were able to try a different method of placing charges on each of the three spans of the bridge. Some damage was caused to near by houses and a number of windows were broken in Libby.
October 8, 1942
The officer's demolition class left for Marysville at 1300 hours to blow an old silver mill; they will have to march in a few miles over hills carrying their fuses and explosives to their objective. The mill though unused for 20-30 years is quite complete and provide excellent practical experience. It is to be blown in five stage starting at the top where the rock enters, then to the crusher etc. A critique will be held afterwards.
The third regiment left at 0700 hours for their forced march to and from Marysville.
October 9, 1942
The best group of officers demolition class left to blow an old smoke stack this morning. The mill caught fire after the demolition and required guards all night to see that it did not spread.
October 10, 1942
Captain Bourne was married this afternoon, a reception being held afterwards at the Placer Hotel. The Montan Club held a dinner and dance in the evening to which all officers were invited, a very successful evening.
October 11, 1942
Cooler, with occasional thunder storms. The second regiment left by truck at 1600 hrs for Adel Montana, to return by a cross country foot march about 45 miles over very rugged country, to be done in five days.
October 12, 1942
Cold and wet. Training this week consist, apart from the forced two day march from Adel by each regiment, of parachute jump training ( this has been delayed owing to the plane being out of commission for some days).
Advance demolitions including the use of primacord and the practising of placing charges in a mock-up power plant.
Section combat problems.
Lectures by Lieut. Hall, 3rd Commandos, British Army on the Va , Norway raid, also newsreel of the raid.
The second regiment returned to camp in trucks, they had experienced very bad weather, cold and wet and at the top of one range, elevation about 8200 feet., they encountered snow and were in a low hanging cloud, making visibility and progress very hard. They arrived at Nelson, their destination, but as blankets were wet as well as clothing it was decided to return by truck and not stay over another night. A very tired bunch of men arrived back in camp about 0100 hours.
October 13, 1942
Cold and wet.
An unlucky day. An American soldier was shot through the head on the range this morning during section combat problems and died this afternoon.
Lieut. Hall gave his Commando lecture to the Service Btn after which they were issued sweaters and Snoods to the Read Cross nurses.
The third Regiment left by truck for Adel this afternoon.
October 14, 1942
The Third Regiment returned by truck from Nelson this evening. It had been decided that the original two day march was too rugged and after the Second Regiment's experience on Monday the one day march over the range was sufficient.
October 15, 1942
The First Regiment left this afternoon by truck to Adel for their march to Nelson tomorrow.
Another pay day and still no word of additional pay. The men took their pay without saying a word, but it is quite evident that they are really made and a few paraded to their Company Commanders wishing to be returned to Canada. They are quite satisfied with other conditions but it again reverts to the fact they cannot work in exactly the same things and receive different rates of pay, its contrary to human nature and this situation cannot go on much longer.
October 16, 1942
Twenty-four other ranks were returned to No 13 District Depot Calgary by plane to-day. The First Regiment returned from Nelson about 1830 hrs.
October 17, 1942
Officers completed the firing of all weapons they had not previously used. A pay parade was held at 1030 hours for the First Regiment who were on their march on the 15th.
October 18, 1942
A perfect day, hardly a cloud to be seen. A number of officers out hunting deer and elk. Lt. Col. Scott and Capt. Martin from the Battle Drill School in British Columbia arrived by plane to compare ideas and look over the set up.
October 19, 1942
Training this week will comprise Radio instruction for nine other ranks from each company.
Parachute jump training for any not yet qualified.
Training generally will include;- Demolitions, map reading, physical training, extended order drill, combat signals, technique of fire for M-1, B.A.R. and L.M.G., Scouting and patrolling, field target firing, combat firing with section and platoon problems. A sky like problem requiring each regiment to march to the Sky Line, the name given to a ridge about 10 miles from Camp. They will be out for twenty-four hours starting from approximately 1700 hours. They will do manouvers about the sky line. Each section will be equipped with 6 M-1's, 2 Tommy Guns and 1 Carbine. Thyey will carry emergency rations of biscuits and chocolate. A noon meal only being provided.
October 20, 1942
Seventeen more other ranks were sent to No 13 District Depot by plane for disposal. For were V.D.S. cases, some were injured, some as unsuitable and one under age. It is hoped this will be the last large group to be returned but there will be individuals returning for various reason. At present three that were to be returned yesterday are A.W.L. One of these takes a size 15 shoe and cannot be fitted so return was recommended by medical authorities.
The Third Regiment returned from their Sky Line problem in the afternoon.
October 21, 1942
All the higher hills covered with snow this morning. Personnel returning from route marches over the hills report deep and ry snow. Looks more promising for skiis though unlikely, according to local residents to last.
Several Norwegian officers and N.C.O.'s have arrived this week as ski instructors.
Colonel Frederick addressed all officers at 1830 hours in the theatre regarding discipline and difficulties occurring in differences of Canadian and American procedure in drill, discipline etc. He praised the Canadians fro the way they had fallen in with American way, especially since they were obliged to adopt more American customs than Americans had to adopt Canadian customs. Discipline was not up to the standard and the onus of correction was placed on platoon commanders.
The second half of the lecture was pointing out the essential qualities required in good officers along with helpful suggestions.
An amusing incident occurred when a cat appeared on the stage and Lt. Col. Shinberger's two dogs did an excellent tactical manoeuvre by attacking simultaneously from opposite sides of the stage. The cat was rescued, the dogs expelled and the address continued.
October 23, 1942
Cold and clear, the ground frozen for the first time.
Some parachute jumping in the morning, three for qualifications, some equipment was dropped and finally 13 of the riggers who wanted to jump voluntarily tried a mass exodus, all 13 got out in 8 seconds.
The Second Regiment left on their Sky Line problem at 1800 hours with all the clothes they could get on and still walk, prospects of a really cold night.
October 24, 1942
A little milder but a high, raw wind. The Second Regiment arrived home early this morning, approximately 0500 hours, preferred to do their manouvers during the night rather than try sleeping.
At 1430 hours a demonstration in Battle Drill was put on for all officers by a platoon especially trained by Capt. Martin. Captain Martin having returned to Vernon B.C., the demonstration was directed and explained by Lieut Cotten. It showed methods of attack and infiltration by platoon and section and reorganization on the completion of assignment. It finished with the attack on and capture of a pill box by means of torpedo, smoke, gun cotton and grenades and reorganization beyond the pill box.
October 25, 1942
Cool and bright. Nothing to report.
October 25, 1942
A four week training schedule is laid down to accomplish the following;
Bayonet; - Develop bayonet fighting as a nature sequence in hand-to-hand
Skiing;- Pending fall of adequate snow, instruction will be devoted to care and use of skis and preliminary skiing exercises in conjunction with physical training.
Scouting and Patrolling;- To be thoroughly covered as the principles are equally applicable to the conduct of small units on the battlefield.
Combat Firing;- Taught with the view of giving sections and platoons sound grounding in offensive tactics, deep infiltrations by small parties, rear guard action, street and mountain fighting.
Combat Principles;- Will involve problems prepared by Force Headquarters.
Note;- All problems involving scouting and patrolling, combat firing and combat principles will commence with an assumed parachute landing, wherein the first situation will find the unit a landing patter confronted with a tactical situation requiring prompt action from the individuals and from the leader. Development of all leaders must be stressed.
Communications Instruction;- For 160 selected O/Rs will take precedence over all other training from 0730 to 1030 hours daily except Sunday. After 1030 hours they will return to their respective organization to complete the day's training.
Light Machine Gun;- Light Machine gun instruction will be conducted by regiments concurrently with rifle marksmanship, and will be designed to produce two skilled light machine gunners in each section. The instruction in light machine gunnery will be centralized by regiments, and the instruction will be conducted by an especially selected officer, qualified for this work.
Thompson Sub Machine Gun;- Each section leader will be trained in the use of the T.S.M.G. concurrently with Rifle Marksmanship. this training will be centralized by regiments under an especially selected officer.
Motor Instruction;- Motor instruction will be conducted concurrently with instruction in scouting and patrolling and combat firing, as an entire organization can not be profitably employed on the limited range facilities for combat firing. When ranges are assigned to a regiment for combat firing and scouting and patrolling, facilities for motor instruction will be simultaneously assigned. And in addition, additional time will be allocated to regiments.
October 27, 1942
The First Regiment left at 0440 hours for the vicinity of Nelson. One Battalion will be given the task of defending York Bridge at all costs until sundown, the other Battalion will try to dislodge them and capture the bridge. Exercise will cease at 1300 hours, lunch will be served and the regiment return by truck to Ft. Harrison at approximately 1500 hours. A critique will be held of the problem in the theatre at 1830 hours.
October 28, 1942
Cold and dull. Hope for news concerning the pay again wanning. If only we could be told something as to why the holdup. The complete silence is getting everyone down.
October 29, 1942
A few jumped this morning. Captain Beckett made his second jump, although still limping from his break on first jump, used two chutes as a precautionary measure and made a successful landing. Jumped 10 weeks and 2 days after he broke his leg. As there is no news regarding pay, acquittance rolls had to be made up and again the question of what to tell the men when you do not know the answer.
October 30, 1942
Captain Biscoe received a telegram from the Paymaster General approving parachute pay at the same rate as flying pay. It was a very great disappointment especially from the men's point of view as they get less than half their American friends, parachute pay. We now have Canadian Staff Sergeants drawing less money than the American privates under them. These men were sent down here to work and life under exceptional circumstances and there seems to be a lack of understanding in this regard some place.
Lt. Col. Williamson decided to have all Canadian personnel assembled and tell them what they were to receive, and in order to try to ease their expected disappointment all acquittance rolls were destroyed and new ones prepared giving each man an additional $25.00 as tangible proof that something had at last been done.
October 31, 1942
Canadian personnel were assembled in the theatre at 1130 hours Lt. Col. Williamson explained the parachute pay, as approved, to them. he also advised them to accept it in good grace even though disappointed and show that they could take the bitter with the sweet. Further that any reaction requiring disciplinary action would be dealt with severely. Pay parades for both Canadian and American personnel were held after dinner. There was considerable griping by the Canadians but no breaches of discipline.
The Montana Club held an Hallowe'en dance to which all officers were
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